Apadana Staircase: an absolute glory of architecture & art

January 4, 2021 - 18:33

TEHRAN – The ruins of Apadana Staircase show off and offer scenes of historic Persian arts to its domestic and foreign visitors an absolute glory of architecture and art.

The lavishly decorated monument stands within the UNESCO-registered Persepolis, which was once the ceremonial capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire (550 –330 BC).

The Staircase features finely crafted frieze in three major panels, each divided into several tiers depicting sovereigns, dignitaries, and the then visitors to the city.

The northern panel itself is divided into three tiers of well-preserved bas-relief figures of Persian nobility including the Imperial Guard and the Immortals.

According to the Lonely Planet, on the upper tier, the figures are followed by the royal procession, valets, and horses of the king’s chariot; on the lower two tiers, these figures precede Persians wearing feather headdresses and Medes in their round caps.

The central panel of the staircase is dominated by the traditional symbol of Zoroastrianism which is flanked by two winged lions with human heads.

Elaborate panels at the southern end of the staircase depicts a record of nations, showing 23 delegations bringing their gifts to an Achaemenid king. The Ethiopians begin the frieze in the bottom left corner and are joined by Arabs, Thracians, Kasmiris, Parthians, and Cappadocians. The Elamites, Egyptians, and Medians occupy the panel at the top right. Accompanying this pantheon of guests are an assortment of delicately carved sheep with ram’s horns and curled wool, two-humped Bactrian camels, oxen, and mules.

On the northern panel exists inscriptions with fairly stereotypical texts by king Xerxes; one in Old Persian and others in Elamite and Babylonian.

According to livius.org, a website on ancient history written and maintained since 1996 by the Dutch historian Jona Lendering, parts of the inscriptions read as:

“A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this earth, who created that heaven, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Xerxes king: the king of many kings, one ruler of many rulers.”

“I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of all nations, having various kinds of people, king in this great earth far and wide, the son of King Darius, an Achaemenid.”

In 330 BC, the staircase was miraculously survived the sack of Persepolis by the soldiers of Alexander the Great. The staircase is currently protected by a permanent shelter.


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