By Mahdi Pourhasani

Quantum computing and geopolitics competition between China and U.S. in cyber space

January 13, 2019

TEHRAN - Quantum computing is the area of study that focuses on developing computer technology based on quantum theory. In information and communication technology it more focuses on the speed of computers. Quantum computing could make opportunities to advanced interests in cyberspace and out of cyberspace.

In Digital area this technology has been well-documented in machine learning, cryptography and Internet of thing, Big data and in out of cyberspace this technology has a positive effect in emerging technology like Artificial intelligence and transport section, for this reason IT companies in USA such as Google, IBM, INTEL and in China companies like Alibaba and Baidu are focusing on developing these technologies In 2018.

 Google has quantum machines can run some algorithms 100 million times faster than conventional processors. In out of cyberspace volks wagon is working on quantum computing powered traffic management system that helps to predict traffic pattern, This technology will be able to simulate large chemical reactions, leading to new materials and medicines, First quantum computers have already been developed and sold by the Canadian company D-Wave.

As we know Technology and geopolitics effect on each other. Geopolitics of cyberspace will be affected by this technology so this technology effect on the entire political player such as states and non- governmental agency. These players try to make a set of policies that improve their ability to advance its interests in and through cyberspace. In this field, the first country can commercialize quantum technology that will be able to gain a geopolitical advantage.

In the writer's opinion, this technology will be affected on Geopolitical competitions between CHINA and USA, in and through cyberspace because this can help to Reinforcement security of countries and economic Relative advantage of stat that translate to their power.
 In the U.S. research budget decreased but Congress increases funding of quantum in 2018, U.S. research budget decreased but Congress increase funding of quantum research.

One of the areas that the USA and China's competition has deepened is next generation ICT technology such as 5G and quantum computing. This technology will be able to provide better encryption than today possible also using these computers will help to decrypt the content.

 Quantum computers will be able to simulate things formerly impossible. For instance, forecasting large chemical reactions leading to new materials and medicines. In business issues, we will be able to analyze the best way for investment. So any country that will be able to use quantum computers for firstly will gain a geopolitical advantage in and through cyberspace.

China is creating new national industries in quantum computing and robotics and building up advanced defense industries. Since 2016 China has launched a mega project for quantum computing to achieving the advance in this technology by 2030, including the development of infrastructure, building the national laboratory for Quantum information science. China's try for developing Quantum computing may help to change the balance of power between USA and CHINA in and through cyberspace.. 

it is too early to say which country will dominate in quantum computing competitions but someone predict us companies will advance in hardware but China will be dominated in software and applications, for example, Chinese researchers focus on encryption, last year Chinese quantum communications satellite claimed to have sent unbreakable code from space.

Quantum computing would be able to affect most of geopolitical of cyberspace. These aspects will be covering internet governance, cooperation, and conflict between players such as government, private and also a digital divide between countries in the topic of the USA and China relation in cyberspace. U.S. and China have a dispute about internet governance each of them can dominate in this technology will be able to control the space of international policymaking in digital space and winning the race in near future.

Quantum computing would be able to affect most of geopolitical of cyberspace. These aspects will be covering internet governance, cooperation, and conflict between player such as government, private and also the digital divide between countries. In the topic of the USA and China relation in cyberspace.

 The USA and China have a dispute about internet governance. each of them could dominate in this technology will be able to control space of international policymaking in digital space and winning the race in near future .so if China could dominate in quantum computing will be able to bridge the digital divide between the USA and their country..

It seems that geopolitical rivalries between China and USA will be continuing in this field in next decade.
Sources:
https://www.cfr.org/project/geopolitics-cyberspace
https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2018-09-26/chinas-quantum-future
ec.europa.eu/newsroom/document.cfm?doc_id=46979
https://www.cfr.org/blog/quantum-race-united-states-cant-afford-lose
https://www.cgai.ca/quantum_diplomacy_for_a_new_technological_age

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